Hadoop Azure Data Lake Support


The hadoop-azure-datalake module provides support for integration with the Azure Data Lake Store. This support comes via the JAR file azure-datalake-store.jar.


  • Read and write data stored in an Azure Data Lake Storage account.
  • Reference file system paths using URLs using the adl scheme for Secure Webhdfs i.e. SSL encrypted access.
  • Can act as a source of data in a MapReduce job, or a sink.
  • Tested on both Linux and Windows.
  • Tested for scale.
  • API setOwner(), setAcl, removeAclEntries(), modifyAclEntries() accepts UPN or OID (Object ID) as user and group names.


Partial or no support for the following operations :

  • Operation on Symbolic Links
  • Proxy Users
  • File Truncate
  • File Checksum
  • File replication factor
  • Home directory the active user on Hadoop cluster.
  • Extended Attributes(XAttrs) Operations
  • Snapshot Operations
  • Delegation Token Operations
  • User and group information returned as listStatus() and getFileStatus() is in the form of the GUID associated in Azure Active Directory.



Azure Data Lake Storage access path syntax is:

adl://<Account Name>.azuredatalakestore.net/

For details on using the store, see Get started with Azure Data Lake Store using the Azure Portal

OAuth2 Support

Usage of Azure Data Lake Storage requires an OAuth2 bearer token to be present as part of the HTTPS header as per the OAuth2 specification. A valid OAuth2 bearer token must be obtained from the Azure Active Directory service for those valid users who have access to Azure Data Lake Storage Account.

Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is Microsoft’s multi-tenant cloud based directory and identity management service. See What is ActiveDirectory.

Following sections describes theOAuth2 configuration in core-site.xml.

Configuring Credentials and FileSystem

Credentials can be configured using either a refresh token (associated with a user), or a client credential (analogous to a service principal).

Using Refresh Tokens

Add the following properties to the cluster’s core-site.xml


Applications must set the Client id and OAuth2 refresh token from the Azure Active Directory service associated with the client id. See Active Directory Library For Java.

Do not share client id and refresh token, it must be kept secret.



Using Client Keys

Generating the Service Principal
  1. Go to the portal
  2. Under services in left nav, look for Azure Active Directory and click it.
  3. Using “App Registrations” in the menu, create “Web Application”. Remember the name you create here - that is what you will add to your ADL account as authorized user.
  4. Go through the wizard
  5. Once app is created, go to “keys” under “settings” for the app
  6. Select a key duration and hit save. Save the generated keys.
  7. Go back to the App Registrations page, and click on the “Endpoints” button at the top a. Note down the “Token Endpoint” URL
  8. Note down the properties you will need to auth:
    • The “Application ID” of the Web App you created above
    • The key you just generated above
    • The token endpoint
Adding the service principal to your ADL Account
  1. Go to the portal again, and open your ADL account
  2. Select Access control (IAM)
  3. Add your user name you created in Step 6 above (note that it does not show up in the list, but will be found if you searched for the name)
  4. Add “Owner” role
Configure core-site.xml

Add the following properties to your core-site.xml



  <value>CLIENT ID FROM STEP 7 ABOVE</value>

  <value>PASSWORD FROM STEP 7 ABOVE</value>

Using MSI (Managed Service Identity)

Azure VMs can be provisioned with “service identities” that are managed by the Identity extension within the VM. The advantage of doing this is that the credentials are managed by the extension, and do not have to be put into core-site.xml.

To use MSI, modify the VM deployment template to use the identity extension. Note the port number you specified in the template: this is the port number for the REST endpoint of the token service exposed to localhost by the identity extension in the VM. The default recommended port number is 50342 - if the recommended port number is used, then the msi.port setting below can be omitted in the configuration.

Configure core-site.xml

Add the following properties to your core-site.xml


  <value>PORT NUMBER FROM ABOVE (if different from the default of 50342)</value>

Using Device Code Auth for interactive login

Note: This auth method is suitable for running interactive tools, but will not work for jobs submitted to a cluster.

To use user-based login, Azure ActiveDirectory provides login flow using device code.

To use device code flow, user must first create a Native app registration in the Azure portal, and provide the client ID for the app as a config. Here are the steps:

  1. Go to the portal
  2. Under services in left nav, look for Azure Active Directory and click on it.
  3. Using “App Registrations” in the menu, create “Native Application”.
  4. Go through the wizard
  5. Once app is created, note down the “Appplication ID” of the app
  6. Grant permissions to the app:
    1. Click on “Permissions” for the app, and then add “Azure Data Lake” and “Windows Azure Service Management API” permissions
    2. Click on “Grant Permissions” to add the permissions to the app

Add the following properties to your core-site.xml

  <value>APP ID FROM STEP 5 ABOVE</value>

It is usually not desirable to add DeviceCode as the default token provider type. But it can be used when using a local command:

 hadoop fs -Dfs.adl.oauth2.access.token.provider.type=DeviceCode -ls ...

Running this will print a URL and device code that can be used to login from any browser (even on a different machine, outside of the ssh session). Once the login is done, the command continues.

Protecting the Credentials with Credential Providers

In many Hadoop clusters, the core-site.xml file is world-readable. To protect these credentials, it is recommended that you use the credential provider framework to securely store them and access them.

All ADLS credential properties can be protected by credential providers. For additional reading on the credential provider API, see Credential Provider API.

hadoop credential create fs.adl.oauth2.client.id -value 123
    -provider localjceks://file/home/foo/adls.jceks
hadoop credential create fs.adl.oauth2.refresh.token -value 123
    -provider localjceks://file/home/foo/adls.jceks
Configuring core-site.xml or command line property
  <description>Path to interrogate for protected credentials.</description>
Running DistCp
hadoop distcp
    [-D fs.adl.oauth2.access.token.provider.type=RefreshToken
     -D hadoop.security.credential.provider.path=localjceks://file/home/user/adls.jceks]
    hdfs://<NameNode Hostname>:9001/user/foo/srcDir
    adl://<Account Name>.azuredatalakestore.net/tgtDir/

NOTE: You may optionally add the provider path property to the distcp command line instead of added job specific configuration to a generic core-site.xml. The square brackets above illustrate this capability.`

Accessing adl URLs

After credentials are configured in core-site.xml, any Hadoop component may reference files in that Azure Data Lake Storage account by using URLs of the following format:

adl://<Account Name>.azuredatalakestore.net/<path>

The schemes adl identifies a URL on a Hadoop-compatible file system backed by Azure Data Lake Storage. adl utilizes encrypted HTTPS access for all interaction with the Azure Data Lake Storage API.

For example, the following FileSystem Shell commands demonstrate access to a storage account named youraccount.

hadoop fs -mkdir adl://yourcontainer.azuredatalakestore.net/testDir

hadoop fs -put testFile adl://yourcontainer.azuredatalakestore.net/testDir/testFile

hadoop fs -cat adl://yourcontainer.azuredatalakestore.net/testDir/testFile
test file content

User/Group Representation

The hadoop-azure-datalake module provides support for configuring how User/Group information is represented during getFileStatus(), listStatus(), and getAclStatus() calls..

Add the following properties to core-site.xml

    When true : User and Group in FileStatus/AclStatus response is
    represented as user friendly name as per Azure AD profile.

    When false (default) : User and Group in FileStatus/AclStatus
    response is represented by the unique identifier from Azure AD
    profile (Object ID as GUID).

    For performance optimization, Recommended default value.

Testing the azure-datalake-store Module

The hadoop-azure module includes a full suite of unit tests. Most of the tests will run without additional configuration by running mvn test. This includes tests against mocked storage, which is an in-memory emulation of Azure Data Lake Storage.

A selection of tests can run against the Azure Data Lake Storage. To run these tests, please create src/test/resources/auth-keys.xml with Adl account information mentioned in the above sections and the following properties.