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Package org.apache.hadoop.service.launcher

This package contains classes, interfaces and exceptions to launch YARN services from the command line.

See: Description

Package org.apache.hadoop.service.launcher Description

This package contains classes, interfaces and exceptions to launch YARN services from the command line.

Key Features

General purpose YARN service launcher:

The ServiceLauncher class parses a command line, then instantiates and launches the specified YARN service. It then waits for the service to finish, converting any exceptions raised or exit codes returned into an exit code for the (then exited) process.

This class is designed be invokable from the static ServiceLauncher.main(String[]) method, or from main(String[]) methods implemented by other classes which provide their own entry points.

Extended YARN Service Interface:

The LaunchableService interface extends Service with methods to pass down the CLI arguments and to execute an operation without having to spawn a thread in the Service.start() phase.

Standard Exit codes:

LauncherExitCodes defines a set of exit codes that can be used by services to standardize exit causes.

Escalated shutdown:

The ServiceShutdownHook shuts down any service via the hadoop shutdown mechanism. The InterruptEscalator can be registered to catch interrupts, triggering the shutdown -and forcing a JVM exit if it times out or a second interrupt is received.


test cases include interrupt handling and lifecycle failures.

Launching a YARN Service

The Service Launcher can launch any YARN service. It will instantiate the service classname provided, using the no-args constructor, or if no such constructor is available, it will fall back to a constructor with a single String parameter, passing the service name as the parameter value.

The launcher will initialize the service via Service.init(Configuration), then start it via its Service.start() method. It then waits indefinitely for the service to stop.

After the service has stopped, a non-null value of Service.getFailureCause() is interpreted as a failure, and, if it didn't happen during the stop phase (i.e. when Service.getFailureState() is not STATE.STOPPED, escalated into a non-zero return code).

To view the workflow in sequence, it is:

  1. (prepare configuration files —covered later)
  2. instantiate service via its empty or string constructor
  3. call Service.init(Configuration)
  4. call Service.start()
  5. call Service.waitForServiceToStop(long)
  6. If an exception was raised: propagate it
  7. If an exception was recorded in Service.getFailureCause() while the service was running: propagate it.
For a service to be fully compatible with this launch model, it must If a service does not stop itself, ever, then it can be launched as a long-lived daemon. The service launcher will never terminate, but neither will the service. The service launcher does register signal handlers to catch kill and control-C signals —calling stop() on the service when signaled. This means that a daemon service may get a warning and time to shut down.

To summarize: provided a service launches its long-lived threads in its Service start() method, the service launcher can create it, configure it and start it, triggering shutdown when signaled. What these services can not do is get at the command line parameters or easily propagate exit codes (there is a way covered later). These features require some extensions to the base Service interface: the Launchable Service.

Launching a Launchable YARN Service

A Launchable YARN Service is a YARN service which implements the interface LaunchableService.

It adds two methods to the service interface —and hence two new features:

  1. Access to the command line passed to the service launcher
  2. A blocking int execute() method which can return the exit code for the application.
This design is ideal for implementing services which parse the command line, and which execute short-lived applications. For example, end user commands can be implemented as such services, thus integrating with YARN's workflow and YarnClient client-side code.

It can just as easily be used for implementing long-lived services that parse the command line -it just becomes the responsibility of the service to decide when to return from the execute() method. It doesn't even need to stop() itself; the launcher will handle that if necessary.

The LaunchableService interface extends Service with two new methods.

LaunchableService.bindArgs(Configuration, List) provides the main(String args[]) arguments as a list, after any processing by the Service Launcher to extract configuration file references. This method is called before Service.init(Configuration). This is by design: it allows the arguments to be parsed before the service is initialized, thus allowing services to tune their configuration data before passing it to any superclass in that init() method. To make this operation even simpler, the Configuration that is to be passed in is provided as an argument. This reference passed in is the initial configuration for this service; the one that will be passed to the init operation. In LaunchableService.bindArgs(Configuration, List), a Launchable Service may manipulate this configuration by setting or removing properties. It may also create a new Configuration instance which may be needed to trigger the injection of HDFS or YARN resources into the default resources of all Configurations. If the return value of the method call is a configuration reference (as opposed to a null value), the returned value becomes that passed in to the init() method.

After the bindArgs() processing, the service's init() and start() methods are called, as usual.

At this point, rather than block waiting for the service to terminate (as is done for a basic service), the method LaunchableService.execute() is called. This is a method expected to block until completed, returning the intended application exit code of the process when it does so.

After this execute() operation completes, the service is stopped and exit codes generated. Any exception raised during the execute() method takes priority over any exit codes returned by the method. This allows services to signal failures simply by raising exceptions with exit codes.

To view the workflow in sequence, it is:

  1. (prepare configuration files —covered later)
  2. instantiate service via its empty or string constructor
  3. call LaunchableService.bindArgs(Configuration, List)
  4. call Service.init(Configuration) with the existing config, or any new one returned by LaunchableService.bindArgs(Configuration, List)
  5. call Service.start()
  6. call LaunchableService.execute()
  7. call Service.stop()
  8. The return code from LaunchableService.execute() becomes the exit code of the process, unless overridden by an exception.
  9. If an exception was raised in this workflow: propagate it
  10. If an exception was recorded in Service.getFailureCause() while the service was running: propagate it.

Exit Codes and Exceptions

For a basic service, the return code is 0 unless an exception was raised.

For a LaunchableService, the return code is the number returned from the LaunchableService.execute() operation, again, unless overridden an exception was raised.

Exceptions are converted into exit codes -but rather than simply have a "something went wrong" exit code, exceptions may provide exit codes which will be extracted and used as the return code. This enables Launchable Services to use exceptions as a way of returning error codes to signal failures and for normal Services to return any error code at all.

Any exception which implements the ExitCodeProvider interface is considered be a provider of the exit code: the method ExitCodeProvider.getExitCode() will be called on the caught exception to generate the return code. This return code and the message in the exception will be used to generate an instance of ExitUtil.ExitException which can be passed down to ExitUtil.terminate(ExitUtil.ExitException) to trigger a JVM exit. The initial exception will be used as the cause of the ExitUtil.ExitException.

If the exception is already an instance or subclass of ExitUtil.ExitException, it is passed directly to ExitUtil.terminate(ExitUtil.ExitException) without any conversion. One such subclass, ServiceLaunchException may be useful: it includes formatted exception message generation. It also declares that it extends the LauncherExitCodes interface listing common exception codes. These are exception codes that can be raised by the ServiceLauncher itself to indicate problems during parsing the command line, creating the service instance and the like. There are also some common exit codes for Hadoop/YARN service failures, such as LauncherExitCodes.EXIT_UNAUTHORIZED. Note that ExitUtil.ExitException itself implements ExitCodeProvider.getExitCode()

If an exception does not implement ExitCodeProvider.getExitCode(), it will be wrapped in an ExitUtil.ExitException with the exit code LauncherExitCodes.EXIT_EXCEPTION_THROWN.

To view the exit code extraction in sequence, it is:

  1. If no exception was triggered by a basic service, a ServiceLaunchException with an exit code of 0 is created.
  2. For a LaunchableService, the exit code is the result of execute() Again, a ServiceLaunchException with a return code of 0 is created.
  3. Otherwise, if the exception is an instance of ExitException, it is returned as the service terminating exception.
  4. If the exception implements ExitCodeProvider, its exit code and getMessage() value become the exit exception.
  5. Otherwise, it is wrapped as a ServiceLaunchException with the exit code LauncherExitCodes.EXIT_EXCEPTION_THROWN to indicate that an exception was thrown.
  6. This is finally passed to ExitUtil.terminate(ExitUtil.ExitException), by way of ServiceLauncher.exit(ExitUtil.ExitException); a method designed to allow subclasses to override for testing.
  7. The ExitUtil class then terminates the JVM with the specified exit code, printing the toString() value of the exception if the return code is non-zero.
This process may seem convoluted, but it is designed to allow any exception in the Hadoop exception hierarchy to generate exit codes, and to minimize the amount of exception wrapping which takes place.

Interrupt Handling

The Service Launcher has a helper class, InterruptEscalator to handle the standard SIGKILL signal and control-C signals. This class registers for signal callbacks from these signals, and, when received, attempts to stop the service in a limited period of time. It then triggers a JVM shutdown by way of ExitUtil.terminate(int, String)

If a second signal is received, the InterruptEscalator reacts by triggering an immediate JVM halt, invoking ExitUtil.halt(int, String). This escalation process is designed to address the situation in which a shutdown-hook can block, yet the caller (such as an init.d daemon) wishes to kill the process. The shutdown script should repeat the kill signal after a chosen time period, to trigger the more aggressive process halt. The exit code will always be LauncherExitCodes.EXIT_INTERRUPTED.

The ServiceLauncher also registers a ServiceShutdownHook with the Hadoop shutdown hook manager, unregistering it afterwards. This hook will stop the service if a shutdown request is received, so ensuring that if the JVM is exited by any thread, an attempt to shut down the service will be made.

Configuration class creation

The Configuration class used to initialize a service is a basic Configuration instance. As the launcher is the entry point for an application, this implies that the HDFS, YARN or other default configurations will not have been forced in through the constructors of HdfsConfiguration or YarnConfiguration.

What the launcher does do is use reflection to try and create instances of these classes simply to force in the common resources. If the classes are not on the classpath this fact will be logged.

Applications may consider it essential to either force load in the relevant configuration, or pass it down to the service being created. In which case further measures may be needed.

1: Creation in an extended ServiceLauncher

Subclass the Service launcher and override its ServiceLauncher.createConfiguration() method with one that creates the right configuration. This is good if a single launcher can be created for all services launched by a module, such as HDFS or YARN. It does imply a dedicated script to invoke the custom main() method.

2: Creation in bindArgs()

In LaunchableService.bindArgs(Configuration, List), a new configuration is created:

 public Configuration bindArgs(Configuration config, List args)
    throws Exception {
   Configuration newConf = new YarnConfiguration(config);
   return newConf;
This guarantees a configuration of the right type is generated for all instances created via the service launcher. It does imply that this is expected to be only way that services will be launched.

3: Creation in serviceInit()

 protected void serviceInit(Configuration conf) throws Exception {
   super.serviceInit(new YarnConfiguration(conf));

This is a strategy used by many existing YARN services, and is ideal for services which do not implement the LaunchableService interface. Its one weakness is that the configuration is now private to that instance. Some YARN services use a single shared configuration instance as a way of propagating information between peer services in a CompositeService. While a dangerous practice, it does happen. Summary: the ServiceLauncher makes a best-effort attempt to load the standard Configuration subclasses, but does not fail if they are not present. Services which require a specific subclasses should follow one of the strategies listed; creation in serviceInit() is the recommended policy.

Configuration file loading

Before the service is bound to the CLI, the ServiceLauncher scans through all the arguments after the first one, looking for instances of the argument LauncherArguments.ARG_CONF argument pair: --conf <file>. This must refer to a file in the local filesystem which exists.

It will be loaded into the Hadoop configuration class (the one created by the ServiceLauncher.createConfiguration() method. If this argument is repeated multiple times, all configuration files are merged with the latest file on the command line being the last one to be applied.

All the --conf <file> argument pairs are stripped off the argument list provided to the instantiated service; they get the merged configuration, but not the commands used to create it.

Utility Classes

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