org.apache.hadoop.mapred
Interface Mapper<K1,V1,K2,V2>

All Superinterfaces:
Closeable, JobConfigurable
All Known Implementing Classes:
ChainMapper, FieldSelectionMapReduce, IdentityMapper, InverseMapper, RegexMapper, TokenCountMapper, ValueAggregatorCombiner, ValueAggregatorJobBase, ValueAggregatorMapper, ValueAggregatorReducer

@InterfaceAudience.Public
@InterfaceStability.Stable
public interface Mapper<K1,V1,K2,V2>
extends JobConfigurable, Closeable

Maps input key/value pairs to a set of intermediate key/value pairs.

Maps are the individual tasks which transform input records into a intermediate records. The transformed intermediate records need not be of the same type as the input records. A given input pair may map to zero or many output pairs.

The Hadoop Map-Reduce framework spawns one map task for each InputSplit generated by the InputFormat for the job. Mapper implementations can access the JobConf for the job via the JobConfigurable.configure(JobConf) and initialize themselves. Similarly they can use the Closeable.close() method for de-initialization.

The framework then calls map(Object, Object, OutputCollector, Reporter) for each key/value pair in the InputSplit for that task.

All intermediate values associated with a given output key are subsequently grouped by the framework, and passed to a Reducer to determine the final output. Users can control the grouping by specifying a Comparator via JobConf.setOutputKeyComparatorClass(Class).

The grouped Mapper outputs are partitioned per Reducer. Users can control which keys (and hence records) go to which Reducer by implementing a custom Partitioner.

Users can optionally specify a combiner, via JobConf.setCombinerClass(Class), to perform local aggregation of the intermediate outputs, which helps to cut down the amount of data transferred from the Mapper to the Reducer.

The intermediate, grouped outputs are always stored in SequenceFiles. Applications can specify if and how the intermediate outputs are to be compressed and which CompressionCodecs are to be used via the JobConf.

If the job has zero reduces then the output of the Mapper is directly written to the FileSystem without grouping by keys.

Example:

     public class MyMapper<K extends WritableComparable, V extends Writable> 
     extends MapReduceBase implements Mapper<K, V, K, V> {
     
       static enum MyCounters { NUM_RECORDS }
       
       private String mapTaskId;
       private String inputFile;
       private int noRecords = 0;
       
       public void configure(JobConf job) {
         mapTaskId = job.get(JobContext.TASK_ATTEMPT_ID);
         inputFile = job.get(JobContext.MAP_INPUT_FILE);
       }
       
       public void map(K key, V val,
                       OutputCollector<K, V> output, Reporter reporter)
       throws IOException {
         // Process the <key, value> pair (assume this takes a while)
         // ...
         // ...
         
         // Let the framework know that we are alive, and kicking!
         // reporter.progress();
         
         // Process some more
         // ...
         // ...
         
         // Increment the no. of <key, value> pairs processed
         ++noRecords;

         // Increment counters
         reporter.incrCounter(NUM_RECORDS, 1);
        
         // Every 100 records update application-level status
         if ((noRecords%100) == 0) {
           reporter.setStatus(mapTaskId + " processed " + noRecords + 
                              " from input-file: " + inputFile); 
         }
         
         // Output the result
         output.collect(key, val);
       }
     }
 

Applications may write a custom MapRunnable to exert greater control on map processing e.g. multi-threaded Mappers etc.

See Also:
JobConf, InputFormat, Partitioner, Reducer, MapReduceBase, MapRunnable, SequenceFile

Method Summary
 void map(K1 key, V1 value, OutputCollector<K2,V2> output, Reporter reporter)
          Maps a single input key/value pair into an intermediate key/value pair.
 
Methods inherited from interface org.apache.hadoop.mapred.JobConfigurable
configure
 
Methods inherited from interface java.io.Closeable
close
 

Method Detail

map

void map(K1 key,
         V1 value,
         OutputCollector<K2,V2> output,
         Reporter reporter)
         throws IOException
Maps a single input key/value pair into an intermediate key/value pair.

Output pairs need not be of the same types as input pairs. A given input pair may map to zero or many output pairs. Output pairs are collected with calls to OutputCollector.collect(Object,Object).

Applications can use the Reporter provided to report progress or just indicate that they are alive. In scenarios where the application takes an insignificant amount of time to process individual key/value pairs, this is crucial since the framework might assume that the task has timed-out and kill that task. The other way of avoiding this is to set mapreduce.task.timeout to a high-enough value (or even zero for no time-outs).

Parameters:
key - the input key.
value - the input value.
output - collects mapped keys and values.
reporter - facility to report progress.
Throws:
IOException


Copyright © 2013 Apache Software Foundation. All Rights Reserved.