Maximizing Performance when working with the S3A Connector


S3 is slower to work with than HDFS, even on virtual clusters running on Amazon EC2.

That’s because its a very different system, as you can see:

Feature HDFS S3 through the S3A connector
communication RPC HTTP GET/PUT/HEAD/LIST/COPY requests
data locality local storage remote S3 servers
replication multiple datanodes asynchronous after upload
consistency consistent data and listings eventual consistent for listings, deletes and updates
bandwidth best: local IO, worst: datacenter network bandwidth between servers and S3
latency low high, especially for “low cost” directory operations
rename fast, atomic slow faked rename through COPY & DELETE
delete fast, atomic fast for a file, slow & non-atomic for directories
writing incremental in blocks; not visible until the writer is closed
reading seek() is fast seek() is slow and expensive
IOPs limited only by hardware callers are throttled to shards in an s3 bucket
Security Posix user+group; ACLs AWS Roles and policies

From a performance perspective, key points to remember are:

  • S3 throttles bucket access across all callers: adding workers can make things worse.
  • EC2 VMs have network IO throttled based on the VM type.
  • Directory rename and copy operations take much longer the more objects and data there is. The slow performance of rename() surfaces during the commit phase of jobs, applications like DistCP, and elsewhere.
  • seek() calls when reading a file can force new HTTP requests. This can make reading columnar Parquet/ORC data expensive.

Overall, although the S3A connector makes S3 look like a file system, it isn’t, and some attempts to preserve the metaphor are “aggressively suboptimal”.

To make most efficient use of S3, care is needed.

Speeding up directory listing operations through S3Guard

S3Guard provides significant speedups for operations which list files a lot. This includes the setup of all queries against data: MapReduce, Hive and Spark, as well as DistCP.

Experiment with using it to see what speedup it delivers.

Improving data input performance through fadvise

The S3A Filesystem client supports the notion of input policies, similar to that of the Posix fadvise() API call. This tunes the behavior of the S3A client to optimise HTTP GET requests for the different use cases.

fadvise sequential

Read through the file, possibly with some short forward seeks.

The whole document is requested in a single HTTP request; forward seeks within the readahead range are supported by skipping over the intermediate data.

This delivers maximum sequential throughput —but with very expensive backward seeks.

Applications reading a file in bulk (DistCP, any copy operations) should use sequential access, as should those reading data from gzipped .gz files. Because the “normal” fadvise policy starts off in sequential IO mode, there is rarely any need to explicit request this policy.

fadvise random

Optimised for random IO, specifically the Hadoop PositionedReadable operations —though seek(offset); read(byte_buffer) also benefits.

Rather than ask for the whole file, the range of the HTTP request is set to that that of the length of data desired in the read operation (Rounded up to the readahead value set in setReadahead() if necessary).

By reducing the cost of closing existing HTTP requests, this is highly efficient for file IO accessing a binary file through a series of and PositionedReadable.readFully() calls. Sequential reading of a file is expensive, as now many HTTP requests must be made to read through the file: there’s a delay between each GET operation.

Random IO is best for IO with seek-heavy characteristics:

  • Data is read using the PositionedReadable API.
  • Long distance (many MB) forward seeks
  • Backward seeks as likely as forward seeks.
  • Little or no use of single character read() calls or small read(buffer) calls.
  • Applications running close to the S3 data store. That is: in EC2 VMs in the same datacenter as the S3 instance.

The desired fadvise policy must be set in the configuration option fs.s3a.experimental.input.fadvise when the filesystem instance is created. That is: it can only be set on a per-filesystem basis, not on a per-file-read basis.

  Policy for reading files.
  Values: 'random', 'sequential' or 'normal'

HDFS-2744, Extend FSDataInputStream to allow fadvise proposes adding a public API to set fadvise policies on input streams. Once implemented, this will become the supported mechanism used for configuring the input IO policy.

fadvise normal (default)

The normal policy starts off reading a file in sequential mode, but if the caller seeks backwards in the stream, it switches from sequential to random.

This policy essentially recognizes the initial read pattern of columnar storage formats (e.g. Apache ORC and Apache Parquet), which seek to the end of a file, read in index data and then seek backwards to selectively read columns. The first seeks may be be expensive compared to the random policy, however the overall process is much less expensive than either sequentially reading through a file with the random policy, or reading columnar data with the sequential policy.

Committing Work in MapReduce and Spark

Hadoop MapReduce, Apache Hive and Apache Spark all write their work to HDFS and similar filesystems. When using S3 as a destination, this is slow because of the way rename() is mimicked with copy and delete.

If committing output takes a long time, it is because you are using the standard FileOutputCommitter. If you are doing this on any S3 endpoint which lacks list consistency (Amazon S3 without S3Guard), this committer is at risk of losing data!

Your problem may appear to be performance, but that is a symptom of the underlying problem: the way S3A fakes rename operations means that the rename cannot be safely be used in output-commit algorithms.

Fix: Use one of the dedicated S3A Committers.

Options to Tune

Thread and connection pool sizes.

Each S3A client interacting with a single bucket, as a single user, has its own dedicated pool of open HTTP 1.1 connections alongside a pool of threads used for upload and copy operations. The default pool sizes are intended to strike a balance between performance and memory/thread use.

You can have a larger pool of (reused) HTTP connections and threads for parallel IO (especially uploads) by setting the properties

property meaning default
fs.s3a.threads.max Threads in the AWS transfer manager 10
fs.s3a.connection.maximum Maximum number of HTTP connections 10

We recommend using larger values for processes which perform a lot of IO: DistCp, Spark Workers and similar.


Be aware, however, that processes which perform many parallel queries may consume large amounts of resources if each query is working with a different set of s3 buckets, or are acting on behalf of different users.

For large data uploads, tune the block size: fs.s3a.block.size

When uploading data, it is uploaded in blocks set by the option fs.s3a.block.size; default value “32M” for 32 Megabytes.

If a larger value is used, then more data is buffered before the upload begins:


This means that fewer PUT/POST requests are made of S3 to upload data, which reduces the likelihood that S3 will throttle the client(s)

Maybe: Buffer Write Data in Memory

When large files are being uploaded, blocks are saved to disk and then queued for uploading, with multiple threads uploading different blocks in parallel.

The blocks can be buffered in memory by setting the option to bytebuffer, or, for on-heap storage array.

  1. Switching to in memory-IO reduces disk IO, and can be faster if the bandwidth to the S3 store is so high that the disk IO becomes the bottleneck. This can have a tangible benefit when working with on-premise S3-compatible object stores with very high bandwidth to servers.

It is very easy to run out of memory when buffering to it; the option" exists to tune how many active blocks a single output stream writing to S3 may have queued at a time.

As the size of each buffered block is determined by the value of fs.s3a.block.size, the larger the block size, the more likely you will run out of memory.


DistCP can be slow, especially if the parameters and options for the operation are not tuned for working with S3.

To exacerbate the issue, DistCP invariably puts heavy load against the bucket being worked with, which will cause S3 to throttle requests. It will throttle: directory operations, uploads of new data, and delete operations, amongst other things

DistCP: Options to Tune

  • -numListstatusThreads <threads> : set to something higher than the default (1).
  • -bandwidth <mb> : use to limit the upload bandwidth per worker
  • -m <maps> : limit the number of mappers, hence the load on the S3 bucket.

Adding more maps with the -m option does not guarantee better performance; it may just increase the amount of throttling which takes place. A smaller number of maps with a higher bandwidth per map can be more efficient.

DistCP: Options to Avoid.

DistCp’s -atomic option copies up data into a directory, then renames it into place, which is the where the copy takes place. This is a performance killer.

  • Do not use the -atomic option.
  • The -append operation is not supported on S3; avoid.
  • -p S3 does not have a POSIX-style permission model; this will fail.

DistCP: Parameters to Tune

  1. As discussed earlier, use large values for fs.s3a.threads.max and fs.s3a.connection.maximum.

  2. Make sure that the bucket is using sequential or normal fadvise seek policies, that is, fs.s3a.experimental.input.fadvise is not set to random

  3. Perform listings in parallel by setting -numListstatusThreads to a higher number. Make sure that fs.s3a.connection.maximum is equal to or greater than the value used.

  4. If using -delete, set fs.trash.interval to 0 to avoid the deleted objects from being copied to a trash directory.

DO NOT switch to buffer in memory. If one distcp mapper runs out of memory it will fail, and that runs the risk of failing the entire job. It is safer to keep the default value, disk.

What is potentially useful is uploading in bigger blocks; this is more efficient in terms of HTTP connection use, and reduce the IOP rate against the S3 bucket/shard.


   Make greater than both fs.s3a.threads.max and -numListstatusThreads





hadoop shell commands fs -rm

The hadoop fs -rm command can rename the file under .Trash rather than deleting it. Use -skipTrash to eliminate that step.

This can be set in the property fs.trash.interval; while the default is 0, most HDFS deployments have it set to a non-zero value to reduce the risk of data loss.


Improving S3 load-balancing behavior

Amazon S3 uses a set of front-end servers to provide access to the underlying data. The choice of which front-end server to use is handled via load-balancing DNS service: when the IP address of an S3 bucket is looked up, the choice of which IP address to return to the client is made based on the the current load of the front-end servers.

Over time, the load across the front-end changes, so those servers considered “lightly loaded” will change. If the DNS value is cached for any length of time, your application may end up talking to an overloaded server. Or, in the case of failures, trying to talk to a server that is no longer there.

And by default, for historical security reasons in the era of applets, the DNS TTL of a JVM is “infinity”.

To work with AWS better, set the DNS time-to-live of an application which works with S3 to something lower. See AWS documentation.

Troubleshooting network performance

An example of this is covered in HADOOP-13871.

  1. For public data, use curl:
    curl -O
  2. Use nettop to monitor a processes connections.


When many requests are made of a specific S3 bucket (or shard inside it), S3 will respond with a 503 “throttled” response. Throttling can be recovered from, provided overall load decreases. Furthermore, because it is sent before any changes are made to the object store, is inherently idempotent. For this reason, the client will always attempt to retry throttled requests.

The limit of the number of times a throttled request can be retried, and the exponential interval increase between attempts, can be configured independently of the other retry limits.

    Number of times to retry any throttled request.

    Interval between retry attempts on throttled requests.

If a client is failing due to AWSServiceThrottledException failures, increasing the interval and limit may address this. However, it it is a sign of AWS services being overloaded by the sheer number of clients and rate of requests. Spreading data across different buckets, and/or using a more balanced directory structure may be beneficial. Consult the AWS documentation.

Reading or writing data encrypted with SSE-KMS forces S3 to make calls of the AWS KMS Key Management Service, which comes with its own Request Rate Limits. These default to 1200/second for an account, across all keys and all uses of them, which, for S3 means: across all buckets with data encrypted with SSE-KMS.

Tips to Keep Throttling down

If you are seeing a lot of throttling responses on a large scale operation like a distcp copy, reduce the number of processes trying to work with the bucket (for distcp: reduce the number of mappers with the -m option).

If you are reading or writing lists of files, if you can randomize the list so they are not processed in a simple sorted order, you may reduce load on a specific shard of S3 data, so potentially increase throughput.

An S3 Bucket is throttled by requests coming from all simultaneous clients. Different applications and jobs may interfere with each other: consider that when troubleshooting. Partitioning data into different buckets may help isolate load here.

If you are using data encrypted with SSE-KMS, then the will also apply: these are stricter than the S3 numbers. If you believe that you are reaching these limits, you may be able to get them increased. Consult the KMS Rate Limit documentation.

S3Guard and Throttling

S3Guard uses DynamoDB for directory and file lookups; it is rate limited to the amount of (guaranteed) IO purchased for a table.

To see the allocated capacity of a bucket, the hadoop s3guard bucket-info s3a://bucket command will print out the allocated capacity.

If significant throttling events/rate is observed here, the pre-allocated IOPs can be increased with the hadoop s3guard set-capacity command, or through the AWS Console. Throttling events in S3Guard are noted in logs, and also in the S3A metrics s3guard_metadatastore_throttle_rate and s3guard_metadatastore_throttled.

If you are using DistCP for a large backup to/from a S3Guarded bucket, it is actually possible to increase the capacity for the duration of the operation.

Best Practises for Code

Here are some best practises if you are writing applications to work with S3 or any other object store through the Hadoop APIs.

Use listFiles(path, recursive) over listStatus(path). The recursive listFiles() call can enumerate all dependents of a path in a single LIST call, irrespective of how deep the path is. In contrast, any directory tree-walk implemented in the client is issuing multiple HTTP requests to scan each directory, all the way down.

Cache the outcome of getFileStats(), rather than repeatedly ask for it. That includes using isFile(), isDirectory(), which are simply wrappers around getFileStatus().

Don’t immediately look for a file with a getFileStatus() or listing call after creating it, or try to read it immediately. This is where eventual consistency problems surface: the data may not yet be visible.

Rely on FileNotFoundException being raised if the source of an operation is missing, rather than implementing your own probe for the file before conditionally calling the operation.


Avoid any algorithm which uploads data into a temporary file and then uses rename() to commit it into place with a final path. On HDFS this offers a fast commit operation. With S3, Wasb and other object stores, you can write straight to the destination, knowing that the file isn’t visible until you close the write: the write itself is atomic.

The rename() operation may return false if the source is missing; this is a weakness in the API. Consider a check before calling rename, and if/when a new rename() call is made public, switch to it.

delete(path, recursive)

Keep in mind that delete(path, recursive) is a no-op if the path does not exist, so there’s no need to have a check for the path existing before you call it.

delete() is often used as a cleanup operation. With an object store this is slow, and may cause problems if the caller expects an immediate response. For example, a thread may block so long that other liveness checks start to fail. Consider spawning off an executor thread to do these background cleanup operations.

Tuning SSL Performance

By default, S3A uses HTTPS to communicate with AWS Services. This means that all communication with S3 is encrypted using SSL. The overhead of this encryption can significantly slow down applications. The configuration option allows applications to trigger certain SSL optimizations.

By default, is set to default_jsse, which uses the Java Secure Socket Extension implementation of SSL (this is the default implementation when running Java). However, there is one difference, the GCM cipher is removed from the list of enabled cipher suites when running on Java 8. The GCM cipher has known performance issues when running on Java 8, see HADOOP-15669 and HADOOP-16050 for details. It is important to note that the GCM cipher is only disabled on Java 8. GCM performance has been improved in Java 9, so if default_jsse is specified and applications run on Java 9, they should see no difference compared to running with the vanilla JSSE. can be set to default_jsse_with_gcm. This option includes GCM in the list of cipher suites on Java 8, so it is equivalent to running with the vanilla JSSE.

OpenSSL Acceleration

Experimental Feature

As of HADOOP-16050 and HADOOP-16346, can be set to either default or openssl to enable native OpenSSL acceleration of HTTPS requests. OpenSSL implements the SSL and TLS protocols using native code. For users reading a large amount of data over HTTPS, OpenSSL can provide a significant performance benefit over the JSSE.

S3A uses the WildFly OpenSSL library to bind OpenSSL to the Java JSSE APIs. This library allows S3A to transparently read data using OpenSSL. The wildfly-openssl library is an optional runtime dependency of S3A and contains native libraries for binding the Java JSSE to OpenSSL.

WildFly OpenSSL must load OpenSSL itself. This can be done using the system property org.wildfly.openssl.path. For example, HADOOP_OPTS="-Dorg.wildfly.openssl.path=<path to OpenSSL libraries> ${HADOOP_OPTS}". See WildFly OpenSSL documentation for more details.

When is set to default, S3A will attempt to load the OpenSSL libraries using the WildFly library. If it is unsuccessful, it will fall back to the default_jsse behavior.

When is set to openssl, S3A will attempt to load the OpenSSL libraries using WildFly. If it is unsuccessful, it will throw an exception and S3A initialization will fail. Configuration can be configured as follows:

    If secure connections to S3 are enabled, configures the SSL
    implementation used to encrypt connections to S3. Supported values are:
    "default_jsse", "default_jsse_with_gcm", "default", and "openssl".
    "default_jsse" uses the Java Secure Socket Extension package (JSSE).
    However, when running on Java 8, the GCM cipher is removed from the list
    of enabled ciphers. This is due to performance issues with GCM in Java 8.
    "default_jsse_with_gcm" uses the JSSE with the default list of cipher
    suites. "default_jsse_with_gcm" is equivalent to the behavior prior to
    this feature being introduced. "default" attempts to use OpenSSL rather
    than the JSSE for SSL encryption, if OpenSSL libraries cannot be loaded,
    it falls back to the "default_jsse" behavior. "openssl" attempts to use
    OpenSSL as well, but fails if OpenSSL libraries cannot be loaded.

Supported values for Value Description
default_jsse Uses Java JSSE without GCM on Java 8
default_jsse_with_gcm Uses Java JSSE
default Uses OpenSSL, falls back to default_jsse if OpenSSL cannot be loaded
openssl Uses OpenSSL, fails if OpenSSL cannot be loaded

The naming convention is setup in order to preserve backwards compatibility with the ABFS support of HADOOP-15669.

Other options may be added to in the future as further SSL optimizations are made.

WildFly classpath requirements

For OpenSSL acceleration to work, a compatible version of the wildfly JAR must be on the classpath. This is not explicitly declared in the dependencies of the published hadoop-aws module, as it is optional.

If the wildfly JAR is not found, the network acceleration will fall back to the JVM, always.

Note: there have been compatibility problems with wildfly JARs and openSSL releases in the past: version 1.0.4.Final is not compatible with openssl 1.1.1. An extra complication was older versions of the azure-data-lake-store-sdk JAR used in hadoop-azure-datalake contained an unshaded copy of the 1.0.4.Final classes, causing binding problems even when a later version was explicitly being placed on the classpath.

Tuning FileSystem Initialization.

When an S3A Filesystem instance is created and initialized, the client checks if the bucket provided is valid. This can be slow. You can ignore bucket validation by configuring fs.s3a.bucket.probe as follows:


Note: if the bucket does not exist, this issue will surface when operations are performed on the filesystem; you will see UnknownStoreException stack traces.